Materials of Constructions

Materials of Constructions

1. The major material of construction in a soda ash plant is 
(a) Cast iron
(b) PVC
(c) Graphite
(d) Stainless steel 
2. HCL absorber is made of 
(a) Stainless steel
(b) Mild steel
(c) Karbate
(d) Aluminium 
3. Which of the following classes of stainless steel does not contain nichel? 
(a) Ferritic
(b) Austinitic
(c) Martensitic
(d) None of these 
4. Monel is an alloy of 
(a) iron and silicon
(b) copper and chromium
(c) nickel and molybdenum
(d) copper and nickel 
5. Monel contains copper and nickel in the ratio of 
(a) 1 : 1 (b) 1 : 2 (c) 2 : 1 (d) 4 : 1 
6. Inconel typically contains 
(a) 76% Fe, 7% Cr, 15% Ni
(b) 15% Fe, 7% Ni, 76% Cr
(c) 76% Ni, 7% Fe, 15% Cr
(d) none of the above 
7. In addition to nickel, chromium and iron, hastealloy contains 
(a) silicon
(b) aluminium
(c) niobium
(d) molybdenum 
8. Which of the following metals is called metallic glass? 
(a) lead
(b) molybdenum
(c) tantalum
(d) titanium 
9. Which of the following stainless steel variety has the highest corrosion resistance? 
(a) Type 304
(b) Type 304 L
(c) Type 321
(d) Type 316 
10. Brass is an alloy of 
(a) copper and nickel
(b) copper and zinc
(c) copper and tin
(d) zinc and tin 
11. Bronze is an alloy of 
(a) copper and zinc
(b) zinc and tin
(c) copper and tin
(d) nickel and tin 
12. Traditionally copper has been used as a material of construction for equipment used in 
(a) food industry, particularly in brewing
(b) chlorination of benzene
(c) concentration of nitric acid
(d) absorption of HCl acid gas 
13. Aluminium is suitable as a material of construction for vessels handling 
(a) 80% H2SO(b) 98% H2SO
(c) HCl of all concentrations
(d) HNO
of concentration greater than 85% 
14. Copper is not attacked by
(a) hot concentrated nitric acid 
(b) hot concentrated sulfuric acid
(c) cold, dilute, unaerated sulfuric acid
(d) cold, dilute hydrochloric acid 
15. The rate of corrosion of mild steel by sulfuric acid is unacceptably high for 
(a) dilute acid
(b) acid at concentrations above 70%
(c) acid of intermediate concentrations
(d) both (a) and (b) 
16. Material of construction for heat exchanger tubes handling sea water is 
(a) mild steel 
(b) stainless steel
(c) cupro - nickel alloys (70 % Cu, 30 % Ni)
(d) aluminium 
17. Which one of the following materials contains copper? 
(a) SS 321
(b) Inconel 0.05%
(c) Monel
(d) Karbate 
18. The corrosion resistance of stainless steel is due to the 
(a) formation of a thin oxide film on the surface
(b) formation of graphitic carbon on the surface
(c) formation of an inert Fe - C - Fe type complex chain
(d) none of the foregoing 
19. Stainless steel is particularly susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in the presence of 
(a) dilute H2SO4(b) concentrated HNO
(c) dilute phosphoric acid 
(d) chloride solution 
20. Under oxidizing environment the use of mild steel as material of construction is limited to temperatures 
(a) below 1000C
(b) below 200
0C
(c) below 500
0C
(d) below 10000
21. Impellers of 98% sulfuric acid pump are made of 
(a) mild steel
(b) cast iron
(c) lead
(d) illium (a nickel - chrome alloy) 
22. For transportation of 98% sulfuric acid at temperatures above 50oC,
(a) cast iron pipes are preferred
(b) mild steel pipes are preferred
(c) galvanized iron pipes are preferred
(d) pipes mentioned in parts (a), (b), (c) are equally useful 
23. Storage vessel for hot 90% sulfuric acid is made of 
(a) lead
(b) cast iron
(c) cast iron containing 14% silicon
(d) none of the above 
24. Material of construction of vessels handling boiling nitric acid of any concentration is 
(a) lead
(b) cast iron
(c) mild steel
(d) high - silicon iron 
25. Karbate is 
(a) an alloy of copper and nickel
(b) chemically impregnated carbon
(c) high - silicon iron
(d) an alloy of copper, tin and zinc 
26. For sitrations where uniform corrosion occurs, corrosion rates are usually expressed as a penetration rate in inch per year (ipy) or mills per year (mpy). Now one mill is equal to 
(a) 0.1 inch
(b) 0.01 inch
(c) 0.001 inch
(d) 0.001 millimeter 
27. Which of the following is corrosive to titanium metal? 
(a) dry chlorine
(b) wet chlorine
(c) dilute hydrochloric acid
(d) 20% sodium chloride solution 
28. The corrosion resistance of titanium is due to 
(a) the formation of an oxide film as in stainless steel
(b) inert titanium which is not attacked by chemicals
(c) the formation of titanium carbide which is inert
(d) some hitherto unknown reason 
29. Corrosion in after boiler steam and condensate lines occurs due to 
(a) pitting by oxygen present in steam and condensate
(b) generalized thinning of metal piping because of low pH
(c) both (a) and (b)
(d) neither (a) nor (b) 
30. Which of the following is the most effective oxygen scavenger used in steam and condensate lines? 
(a) Hydrazine
(b) sodium sulfite
(c) soda ash
(d) morpholine 
31. Which of the following statements about hydrazine is / are true? 
(a) Hydrazine is an excellent oxygen scavenger and passivates iron and copper surfaces, rendering them less susceptible to corrosion 
(b) Hydrazine reacts with oxygen to produce corrosive nitric acid 
(c) Hydrazine produces solid products on reaction with oxygen, the solids get deposited on the steam lines and cause problems 
32. Modern day caustic - chlorine plants are usually equipped with systems capable of neutralizing chlorine gas under plant upset conditions to prevent releases. The material of construction for a typical caustic scrubber is 
(a) carbon steel
(b) stainless steel 304
(c) polyvinyl chloride lined FRP
(d) copper 
33. Most economic material of construction of storage vessels for 40% caustic soda solution in the temperature range of 200C to 400C is 
(a) cast iron
(b) carbon steel
(c) monel
(d) zirconium 
34. Which of the following components present in stainless steel is called an austinite former? 
(a) niobium
(b) chromium 
(c) molybdenum 

(d) nickel 
35. Molybdenum is added to stainless steel to improve its 
(a) toughness
(b) ductility
(c) case of weldability
(d) pitting and crevice corrosion resistance 
36. Which of the following is called ferrite former? 
(a) nickel
(b) niobium
(c) molybdenum
(d) chromium 
37. When nickel is added to straight - chromium stainless steel, the structure changer from 
(a) austenitic to ferritic
(b) ferritic to sigma phase
(c) ferritic to austenitic
(d) austenitic to martensitic 
38. When the carbon content of iron - chromium alloys is increased, the chromium content above which the steel no longer becomes austenitic on heating 
(a) increases
(b) decreases
(c) remain unchanged 
39. Sensitization in stainless steel is 
(a) the combining of chromium with carbon along grain boundaries to form chromium carbides which gives rise to intergranular corrosion 
(b) the combining of carbon with hydrogen to produce methane which reduces the ductility 
(c) the combining of nickel with carbon to form nickel carbide that improves the corrosion resistance of stainless steel in the presence of chloride ions 
(d) none of the above 
40. Evaporator tubes for concentration of caustic soda solutions are usually made of 
(a) stainless steel 316
(b) mild steel
(c) nickel
(d) aluminium 
41. Presence of ammonia can readily cause stress corrosion cracking of 
(a) nickel
(b) copper
(c) stainless steel 321
(d) zirconium 
42. Zirconium alloys have excellent resistance to 
(a) reducing chloride solutions 
(b) oxidizing chloride solutions 
(c) both reducing and oxidizing chloride solution 
(d) dry chlorine gas, chloride solutions, oxidizing or reducing, greatly corrode the materials 
43. Which of the following performs best under reducing conditions?
(a) stainless steel
(b) aluminium
(c) titanium
(d) copper - base alloys 
44. Copper is suitable as a material of construction for handling warm dilute acetic acid provided 
(a) the solution contains little ammonia 
(b) the solution is aerated
(c) the solution is not aerated
(d) the solution contains an oxidizing agent such as chromic acid 
45. Copper - base alloys are resistant to 
(a) nitric acid of any concentration
(b) chromic acid of any concentration
(c) most alkaline solutions at room temperatures
(d) aqueous ammonia solutions 
46. Which of the following materials will not corrode aluminium? 
(a) 90 % sulfuric acid
(b) 20 % hydrochloric acid
(c) 20 % caustic soda solution
(d) 90 % nitric acid 
47. There are two special areas of chemicals production in which aluminum is used as material of construction. They are 
(a) concentration of caustic soda solution by evaporation and manufacture of hydrochloric acid 
(b) manufacture of hydrogen peroxide and distribution of highly concentrated nitric acid 
48. Suitable material of construction for equipment handling dry halogen gases and chlorinated hydrocarbons is 
(a) stainless steel
(b) aluminium alloys
(c) titanium
(d) monel (66% Ni, 33% Cu) 
49. The alloy of composition 70% nickel, 28% molybdenum and 2% iron is called 
(a) Monel alloy No. 400 
(b) Hastilloy - B
(c) Carpenter alloy 20
(d) Hastilloy C 
50. Hastilloy B is generally suitable as a material of construction for 
(a) strongly oxidizing conditions
(b) reducing conditions
(c) both oxidizing and reducing conditions 
51. Hastelloy C has a composition of 
(a) 60% nickel, 17% molybdenum, 15% chromium, 5% tungsten and 5% iron? 
(b) 60% nickel, 40% zirconium
(c) 30% nickel, 40% molybdenum, 30% iron
(d) 60% vanadium, 17% molybdenum, 15% chromium, 8% iron 
52. KBI - 40 is an alloy of 
(a) chromium and nickel
(b) molybdenum and vanadium (c) columbium and iron
(d) tantalum and columbium 
53. Of the two alloys, Hastelloy B and Hastelloy C, 
(a) Hastelloy C has better resistance under reducing conditions (b) Hastelloy C has better resistance under oxidizing conditions (c) Hastelloy B has better resistance under oxidizing conditions (d) None of the above is true 
54. Material of construction of reactor for production of chlorosulfonic acid is 
(a) carbon steel
(b) stainless steel type 316
(c) steel lined with polytetragluoroethylene (d) none of these 
55. Consider production of ethylene dichloride by reaction of ethylene with dry hydrogen chloride and oxygen in the presence of copper chloride catalyst in a fixed bed reactor. The temperature is 
2750C and the pressure is 10 atm. The process is exothermic; the reaction heat is removed by generation of steam in the shell side of the reactor. Suitable material of construction for reactor tubes is 
(a) Type 304 stainless steel
(b) Type 316 stainless steel
(c) Alloy 200 (99.6 % nickel)
(d) Aluminium 
56. Addition of columbium to stainless steel improves its 
(a) oxidation resistance
(b) creep strength
(c) machinability
(d) pitting resistance 
57. Sulfur, selenium and lead are added to stainless steel to improve its 
(a) pitting resistance
(b) machinability
(c) strength and hardness
(d) oxidation resistance at high temperature 
58. Which of the following organic solutions is the most corrosive to zirconium? 
(a) boiling 95% acetic acid
(b) boiling 50% citric acid
(c) boiling trichloroacetic acid
(d) boiling 85% formic acid 
59. Which of the following salt solutions is the most corrosive to zirconium? 
(a) 20% boiling MgClsolution
(b) 20% AlCl
solution at 1000
(c) 20% BaCl
solution at 1000
(d) 20% CuCl2/ 20% FeClsolution at 1000C
60. Which of the following chemicals attacks / attack equipment made of borosilicate glass? 
(a) 10% caustic soda solution at 800
(b) 85% phosphoric acid at 1100C
(c) Hydrofluoric acid
(d) All (a), (b), (c) 
61. Which of the following materials is the best in handling hydrochloric acid as well as caustic soda solution of all concentrations and at temperature upto boiling point? 
(a) lead
(b) Titanium
(c) Tantalum
(d) Zirconium 
62. The susceptibility of stainless steel to stress corrosion cracking is very dependent on the nickel content and is a maximum at 
(a) 2 % nickel
(b) 8 % nickel
(c) 20% nickel
(d) 40% nickel 
63. Which of the following stainless steels is considered immune to stress corrosion cracking under most circumstances? 
(a) stainless steel Type 304
(b) stainless steel Type 316
(c) Alloy 20
(d) Alloy 825 
64. In low - carbon steels, the carbon content is restricted to a maximum of 
(a) 0.1 % (b) 0.25 % (c) 1.0 % (d) 4.0 % 
65. Low carbon steel is the most commonly used engineering material because 
(a) it is cheap
(b) it has reasonable mechanical properties
(c) it is, in most circumstances, a very ductile material
(d) all (a), (b), (c) are true 
66. Which of the following materials will not be attacked by 5% sodium hypochlorite at 25oC? 
(a) columbium
(b) Hastelloy alloy B-2 (nickel - molybdenum)
(c) Monel alloy (nickel - copper)
(d) Hastelloy alloy C - 276 (nickel - chromium - molybdenum) 
67. Which of the following materials is resistant to 10% chlorosulfonic acid at 250C? 
(a) stainless steel Type 316
(b) carpenter alloy 20 (high nickel stainless steel)
(c) Hastilloy alloy B-2 (nickel - molydenum)
(d) None of these 
68. Which of the following materials is / are resistant to moist sulfur dioxide at 250C? 
(a) Hastelloy alloy B - 2
(b) stainless steel Type 216
(c) monel
(d) all (a), (b), (c) 
69. Which of the following materials is / are unsatisfactory for handling boiling 50% sulfuric acid solution? 
(a) Hastelloy alloy C-276 or Titanium
(b) Monel alloy number 400
(c) Stainless steel Type 316
(d) All of the foregoing 
70. Material of construction for processes involving hydrogen under high pressures and temperatures should be selected carefully. For processes involving hydrogen under high pressures, carbon steel has severe limitation above about 200C. The most suitable alloying elements conferring resistance to high temperature hydrogen attack (under elevated pressures) to stainless steel are 
(a) nickel
(b) molybdenum/chromium
(c) silicon 
71. The well - known "silver steel" is 
(a) a carbon steel containing 0.1 % carbon
(b) a stainless steel containing 50 % silver
(c) a carbon steel containing 0.9 % carbon
(d) an alloy containing 90 % silver, 1 % carbon and 9 % iron 
72. As the carbon content in steel increases, welding 
(a) becomes progressively more difficult
(b) becomes progressively easier 

(c) none of the foregoing; carbon content has nothing to do with the case of welding 
73. Creep strength is 
(a) another name of tensile strength
(b) another name of yield strength
(c) time - dependent strain occurring under stress
(d) yield strength at elevated temperatures, greater than 1000oC 
74. Which of the following materials cannot be used to handle liquefied natural gas at - 160C? 
(a) carbon steel
(b) aluminium - magnesium alloys
(c) austenitic stainless steels
(d) copper alloys 
75. For situations where sea water is used as a coolant, heat exchanger tubes are made of 
(a) carbon steel
(b) stainless steel Type 316
(c) cupro - nickel alloys (70 Cu, 30 Ni)
(d) aluminium 
76. Polytetrafluoroethylene, known under the trade names Teflon and Fluon, is resistant to all chemicals, except 
(a) molten alkalies and fluorine
(b) moderately concentrated sulfuric and nitric acid
(c) formic, acetic and higher carboxylic acids
(d) saturated brines at temperatures of 50o to 80oC 
77. The chemical resistance of glass-fibre rein forced plastics (GRP) is dependent on the amount of glass reinforcement used. High ratios of glass to resin give 
(a) improved corrosion resistance
(b) higher mechanical strength
(c) both (a) and (b)
(d) wither (a) nor (b) 
78. The creep strength of a material is usually reported as the stress to cause rupture 
(a) in one hour at the test temperature
(b) in 100 hours at the test temperature
(c) in 1000 hours at the test temperature 

(d) in 100,000 hours at the test temperature 
79. Brittle materials are 
(a) weak in tension but strong in compression
(b) strong in tension but weak in compression
(c) weak in tension as well as in compression
(d) strong in tension as well as in compression 
80. Toughness is a measure of a materials resistance to 
(a) wear
(b) bending and buckling
(c) crack propagation
(d) none of the foregoing 
81. Stiffness is a measure of a materials resistance to 
(a) wear
(b) bending and buckling
(c) crack propagation
(d) (a) and (c) 
82. Stiffness of a material is a function of 
(a) its elastic modulus
(b) the second moment of area
(c) both (a) and (b)
(d) neither (a) nor (b) 
83. Which of the following materials is resistant to picric acid at 100 0C? 
(a) Aluminium bronze
(b) Cast iron
(c) High silicon iron (14 % silicon) 

(d) Copper 
84. Which of the following materials can satisfactorily resist corrosion by cooking liquor used in the kraft pulping process? 
(a) carbon steel
(b) 18 Cr - 8 Ni stainless steel
(c) glass
(d) cast iron 
85. Much of the world's nitric acid is produced by the oxidation of ammonia in air. The converter for ammonia oxidation is made of 
(a) austenitic stainless steel
(b) aluminium
(c) cast iron
(d) none of the foregoing 
86. The concentration of nitric acid upto acid 99% requires secondary processing to remove excess water. This involves mixing 65% nitric acid with another substance having a greater affinity for water (such as sulfuric acid), then separating the mixed acids by distillation column is 
(a) cast iron
(b) carbon steel and aluminium alloys
(c) duriron or glass-lined steel
(d) fibre - glass reinforced plastics 
87. Which of the following materials is the best in handling 80% deaerated formic acid at atmospheric boiling temperature? 
(a) stainless steel Type 304
(b) copper and copper alloys
(c) aluminium
(d) stainless steel Type 316 
88. In sulfuric acid manufacture, sulfur trioxide is absorbed in 98 - 99 % sulfuric acid in a packed absorber. The material of construction of the absorber is usually 
(a) copper and copper - base alloys
(b) aluminium
(c) brick - lined steel or cast iron
(d) nickel and nickel - base alloys 
89. The packing particles in sulfur trioxide absorber are usually made of 
(a) carbon steel
(b) stainless steel Type 316
(c) ceramic material
(d) alloy B - 2 
90. Which of the following materials creeps under its own weight? 
(a) aluminium
(b) zinc
(c) copper
(d) lead 
91. Concentrated hydrochloric acid is transported and stored in 
(a) carbon steel tanks
(b) stainless steel Type 316 tanks
(c) rubber - lined tanks
(d) aluminium tanks 
92. Chemical inhibitor that minimizes caustic embrittlement of industrial boilers is 
(a) sodium nitrate
(b) sodium sulfate
(c) calcium chloride
(d) ferric sulfate 
93. Muntz metal is an alloy of 
(a) copper and aluminium (55% and 45%, respectively)
(b) copper and zinc (60% and 40%, respectively)
(c) zinc and lead (70% and 30%, respectively)
(d) copper, tin and zinc (40%, 30% and 30%, respectively) 
94. Admiralty brass is an alloy of 70% copper, 29% zinc and 1% tin. The alloy also contains about 0.5% arsenic. The presence of arsenic in Admiralty brass 
(a) improves its corrosion resistance
(b) improves its mechanical properties
(c) prevents dezincification
(d) prevents fatigue failure 
95. The addition of zinc to copper 
(a) improves its mechanical properties
(b) lowers its corrosion resistance in most chemical environments
(c) improves its pitting resistance
(d) improves its corrosion resistance in most chemical environments