Fig. 2.1 General PV plots for real fluids
pressurization more of the saturated vapour present at B progressively liquefies until a point X is reached where all the original gas (or saturated vapour) is fully converted to liquid state. Point X is described as a saturated liquid state. It follows that at all point between B and X the substance exists partitioned into two phases, i.e., part vapour and part liquid. As one transits from B to X, pressure and temperature both remain constant; the only change that occurs is that the fraction of the original gas at point A (or B) that is liquefied increases, until it is 1.0 at point X. The line BX connecting the saturated vapour and liquid phases is called the tieline. For a given T and P, the relative amounts of the phases determine the effective molar (or specific) volume at any point within the twophase region. Any further attempt to pressurize the saturated liquid results in relatively very little compression, and this is captured by the steep slope of the curve XY, which signifies that the liquid state is far less compressible, compared to the gas state (i.e., points over AB). Essentially points between XY(including Y itself) represent compressed liquid states.
An important point to reemphasize is that on the twophase line BX, the pressure of the system remains constant at a fixed value. This pressure is termed the saturation pressure () corresponding to the temperature T_{1}. We recall your attention to the phase rule described in section 1.5, and eqn. 1.11. By this eqn. the degrees of freedom is one, which is borne by the fact that if one fixes temperature the system pressure also becomes fixed. However, in both regions AB and XY the degrees of freedom is two, as pressure becomes fixed only if one defines both temperature and volume.
In general, the same behviour as detailed above may repeat at another temperature T (>T_{1}). One can on the one hand connect all the saturated vapour phase points at different temperatures and on the other connect all the points representing saturated liquid phase, the locus of such points give rise to the domeshaped portion XCB of the PV diagram which essentially signifies that at any pressure and volume combination within this dome, the state of the system is biphasic (part gas and part liquid). The region right of the dome BC represents saturated gas phase while to the left (XC) the state is saturated liquid. If one continues to conduct the pressurization at increasingly higher temperatures, one eventually arrives at a temperature for which the tieline is reduced to a point and the PV curve turns into an inflexion point to the twophase dome. The temperature which such a behavior obtains is called the critical temperature (T_{C}), while the pressure at corresponding point of inflexion is termed the critical pressure (P_{C}). The molar volume at the point is termed the critical volume, and the state itself the criticalpoint. A fluid which is at a temperature and pressure above the critical point values is said to be in a supercritical state; this is indicated by the hatched region in fig. 2b. As has been shown for the PVcurves for a T > T_{C}, there exists no liquid phase as the curve passes beyond the twophase dome region. Thus, the critical temperature is a temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied by compressing, as can be below it. Compilation ofvalues of critical properties and ω for a large number of substances are available readily from several sources see:srdata.nist.gov). Values of these parameters for some select substances are provided in Appendix II.
In fig. 2.1b the phase behavior depicted in fig. 2.1a is extended and more generalized to include solid phase as well. Accordingly, not only vapourliquid region, other two phase regions, i.e., solidvapour and solidliquid regions are also displayed. The same arguments as made above for explaining the nature of coexistence of vapour and liquid phases apply to the other two biphasic regions. 
PT Diagrams 
The phase behaviour described by fig. 2.1 can also be expressed in a more condensed manner by means of a pressuretemperature (PT) diagram shown in fig 2.2. Just as PV curves were depicted at constant temperature, the PT diagram is obtained at a constant molar volume. The two phase regions which were areas in the PV diagram are reduced to lines (or curves) in fig. 2.2. The PT curves shown by lines XY, YZ, and YC resultfrom measurements of the vapour 

Fig. 2.2 PressureTemperature Diagram of a Pure Substance
pressure of a pure substance, both as a solid and as a liquid. XY corresponds to the solidvapour (sublimation) line; XY represents the coexistence of solid and liquid phases or the fusion line, while the curve YC displays the vapourliquid equilibrium region. The pressure at each temperature on the YC curve corresponds to the equilibrium vapour pressure. (Similar considerations apply for PTrelation on the sublimation curve, XY). The terminal point C represents the critical point, while the hatched region corresponds to the supercritical region. It is of interest to note that the above three curves meet at the triplepoint where all three phases, solid, liquid and vapour coexist in equilibrium. By the phase rule (eqn. 1.11) the degrees of freedom at this state is zero. It may be noted that the triple point converts to a line in fig. 2.1b. As already noted, the two phases become indistinguishable at the critical point. Paths such as F to G lead from the liquid region to the gas region without crossing a phase boundary. In contrast, paths which cross phase boundary ZY include a vaporization step, where a sudden change from liquid to gas occurs.
A substance in the compressed liquid state is also often termed as subcooled, while gas at a pressure lower than its saturation vapour pressure for a given temperature is said to be “superheated”. These descriptions may be understood with reference to fig. 2.2. Let us consider a compressed liquid at some temperature (T) and pressure (P). The saturation temperature for the pressure P would be expected to be above the given T. Hence the liquid is said to be subcooled with respect to its saturation temperature. Consider next a pure vapour at some temperature (T) and pressure (P). Clearly for the given pressure P the saturation temperature for the pressure P would be expected to be below the given T. Hence with respect to the saturation temperature the vapour is superheated.
The considerations for PV and PT diagrams may be extended to describe the complete PVT phase behaviour in the form of three dimensional diagrams as shown in fig. 2.3. Instead of twodimensional plots in figs. 2.1 and 2.2 we obtain a PVT surface. The PV plots are recovered 

Fig. 2.3 Generalized Threedimensional PVT Surface for a Pure Substance
if one takes a slice of the three dimensional surface for a given temperature, while the PT curve obtains if one takes a crosssection at a fixed volume. As may be evident, depending on the volume at which the surface is cut the PT diagram changes shape.
Fig. 2.4 illustrates the phase diagram for the specific case of water. The data that is pictorially depicted so, is also available in the form of tables popularly known as the “steam table”. The steam table (www.steamtablesonline.com) provides values of the following thermodynamic properties of water and 

Fig. 2.4 Threedimensional PVT Plot for Water
vapour as a function of temperature and pressure starting from its normal freezing point to the critical point: molar volume, internal energy, enthalpy and entropy (the last three properties are introduced and discussed in detail in chapters 3 and 4).
The steam tables are available for saturated (twophase), the compressed liquid and superheated vapour state properties. The first table presents the properties of saturated gas and liquid as a function of temperature (and in addition provides the saturation pressure). For the other two states the property values are tabulated in individual tables in terms of temperature and pressure, as the degree of freedom is two for a pure component, single state. For fixing the values of internal energy, enthalpy and entropy at any temperature and pressure those for the saturated liquid state at the triple point are arbitrarily assigned zero value. The steam tables comprise the most comprehensive collection of properties for a pure substance.
2.2 Origins of Deviation from Ideal Gas Behaviour

The ideal gas EOS is given by eqn. 1.12. While this is a relationship between the macroscopic intensive properties there are two assumptions about the microscopic behaviour of molecules in an ideal gas state:
 The molecules have no extension in space (i.e., they posses zero volume)
 The molecules do not interact with each other
In particular, the second assumption is relatively more fundamental to explaining deviations from ideal gas behavior; and indeed for understanding thermodynamic behavior of real fluids (pure or mixtures) in general. For this, one needs to understand the interaction forces that exist between molecules of any substance, typically at very short intermolecular separation distances (~ 5 – 20(where 1= 10^{8}m).
Uncharged molecules may either be polar or nonpolar depending on both on their geometry as well as the electronegativity of the constituent atoms. If the centre of total positive and negative charges in a molecule do not coincide (for example, for water), it results in a permanent dipole, which imparts a polarity to the molecule. Conversely, molecules for which the centres of positive and negative charge coincide (for example, methane) do not possess a permanent dipole and are termed nonpolar. However, even a socalled nonpolar molecule, may possess an instantaneous dipole for the following reason. At the atomic level as electrons oscillate about the positively charged central nucleus, at any point of time a dipole is set up. However, averaged over time, the net dipole moment is zero.
When two polar molecules approach each other closely the electric fields of the dipoles overlap, resulting in their reorientation in space such that there is a net attractive force between them. If on the other hand a polar molecule approaches a nonpolar molecule, the former induces a dipole in the latter (due to displacement of the electrons from their normal position) resulting once again in a net attractive interaction between them. Lastly when two nonpolar molecules are close enough their instantaneous dipoles interact resulting in an attractive force. Due to these three types of interactions (dipoledipole, dipoleinduced dipole, and induced dipoleinduced dipole) molecules of any substance or a mixture are subjected to an attractive force as they approach each other to very short separation distances.
However, intermolecular interactions are not only attractive. When molecules approach to distances even less than ~ 5 or so, a repulsive interaction force comes into play due to overlap of the electron clouds of each molecule, which results in a repulsive force field between them. Thus if one combines both the attractive and repulsive intermolecular interactions the overall interaction potential Uresembles the schematic shown in fig. 2.5. 

Fig. 2.3 Schematic of Intermolecular potential energy U for a pair of uncharged molecules
Many expressions have been proposed for the overall interaction potential U [see, J.M. Prausnitz, R.N Lichtenthaler and E.G. Azevedo, Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid Phase Equilibria, (3rd ed.), 1999, Prentice Hall, NJ (USA)]. These are essentially empirical, although their functional forms often are based on fundamental molecular theory of matter. The most widely used equation in this genre is the LennardJones (LJ) 12/6 pairpotential function which is given by eqn. 2.1 
 (2.1) 

Where, r = intermolecular separation distance; = characteristic LJ parameters for a substance. The term represents the repulsive interaction, whereas the term corresponds to the attractive interaction potential. As already indicated, the domain of intermolecular interactions is limited to relatively low range of separation distances. In principle they are expected to be operative over but for practical purposes they reduce to insignificant magnitudes for separations exceeding about 10 times the molecular diameter.
The LJ parameters are representative of the molecular interaction and size respectively. Typical values of the LJ equation parameters for various substances may be found elsewhere (G. Maitland, M. Rigby and W. Wakeham, 1981, Intermolecular Forces: Their Origin and Determination, Oxford, Oxford University Press.)
Since gases behave ideally at low pressures, intermolecular separation distances therein are typically much higher than the range over which intermolecular interactions are significant. This is the reason why such interactions are negligible in case of ideal gas, which essentially is one of the assumptions behind the definition of ideal gas state. Indeed while the ideal gas EOS is expressed in macroscopic terms in eqn. 1.12, the same equation may be derived from microscopic (thermodynamic) theory of matter.
The root of nonideal gas behavior, which typically obtains at higher pressure, thus is due to the fact that at elevated pressures, the intermolecular separations tend to lie within the interactive range and hence the ideal gas assumption is no longer valid. Thus, the ideal gas EOS is insufficient to describe the phase behavior of gases under such conditions.
Intermolecular interactions also help explain the behavior of fluids in other states. Gases can condense when compressed, as molecules are then brought within the separations where the attractive forces constrain the molecules to remain within distances typical of liquid phase. It follows that a pure component liquid phase cannot be ideal in the same sense as a gas phase can be. Further, the fact that liquids are far less compressible also is due to the repulsive forces that operate at close intermolecular distances. Obviously these phenomena would not be observed unless there were interactions between molecules. Thus, it follows that while properties of the ideal gas depend only on those of isolated, noninteracting moleclues, those of real fluids depends additionally on the intermolecular potential. Properties which are determined by the intermolecular interaction are known as configurational properties, an example of which is the energy required for vapourization; this is because during the process of vapourization energy has to be provided so as to overcome the intermolecular attractive force between molecules in the liquid phase and achieve the gas state where the seprations are relatively larger.






